Table 5

Implications for physician leadership development

Individuals aspiring to leadership and management positionsLeadership development programmes
Engage in self-reflection around the qualities necessary to develop a focus on learning.Support a growth mindset through establishing psychological safety and a learning orientation.
Ground management practices in medicine through clinical knowledge and clarity of purpose.Facilitate clarity of purpose and help physician leaders develop the wisdom and tools to engage others in healthcare improvement.
Work with others by ‘working the system’ or ‘working with the system’ (dependent on one’s level of authority) through teaming.Help participants to practise addressing actual challenges in changing team constellations.
Become systems catalysts and use oneself as a learning tool.Help participants develop a systems perspective through observations, identification of interdependencies and analysis of situations through the lens of different parties and provide training in how to engage others in multistakeholder change processes.
Cultivate a scientific mindset that guides the analysis of problems and the measurement of progress.Link a scientific mindset to organisational improvement efforts by requiring that projects be anchored in evidence and use data to inform decisions and learning.