Table 1

Scan inclusion and exclusion criteria

Physician leadership programmes
  • Physician leadership programmes that were scheduled or had prospective dates between 2020 and 2022.*

  • Written in English (or English translation available).

  • Programmes that identified physicians as a key participant group and were offered by either a university faculty of medicine, physician regulatory body or professional physician membership association.

  • Programmes that focused on business leadership with no mention of healthcare.

  • Programmes that were designed for undergraduate, postgraduate students or medical students.

  • Programmes that focused primarily on mentorship as opposed to leadership.

Peer-reviewed literature
  • Published in peer-reviewed journals.

  • Written in English (or English translation available).

  • Reported on primary research (ie, analyses and presents primary data).

  • Focused on physicians.

  • Provides a programme evaluation or outcome.

  • Commentaries, research letters, editorials and articles that focus on curriculum development without an evaluation component.

  • Articles that focus on undergraduate or postgraduate leadership programmes.

  • Articles that focused only on mentorship programmes or mentorship activities outside of a structured leadership programme.

  • Titles/abstracts of major presentations (ie, keynote, major lecture, plenary lecture, major plenary/panel discussion/symposium, workshops).

  • Included in conference materials (ie, brochures and agendas) of selected medical conferences hosted between 2016 and 2020.

  • Written in English (or English translation available).

  • Conference titles/abstracts that included terms related to EDI (eg, (eg, ‘bias,’ ‘culture,’ ‘equity,’ ‘accountability,’ ‘harass/harassment,’ ‘discriminate/discrimination,’ ‘diversity,’ ‘inclusive/inclusivity,’ ‘Me Too/Us Too (or variant),’ ‘equality/inequality,’ ‘intersectionality’).

  • Titles/abstracts for poster abstracts, oral presentation abstracts and small-scale symposia and breakout sessions.

  • Titles/Abstracts which focused on alternative diversity categories (eg, generational diversity, diversity of disciplines on health and professional teams).

  • *Due to cancellations related to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020/2021, we widened the date range to catch programmes that were listed as postponed/rescheduled.

  • EDI, equity, diversity and inclusion.