Table 2

Career development

AuthorYearParticipantsType of studyStudy objectiveFindings
Jonasson16 1993American College of Surgeons (ACS)ReviewTo establish the barriers for women surgeons career advancementMultiple factors impede advancement which include: stereotypes, sexism and family demands.
Jonasson6 2002ACS MembershipSurveyTo understand the representation of women in leadership roles in surgeryPercentage of women in societies in 2001:
ACS 4.4%
ASA 2.2 %
Society of University Surgeons 3.3%
Percentage of women among the board of directors of ABMS certifying boards 12 (6.3%)
Ahmadiyeh et al 17 2010SurgeonsQualitativeTo identify elements of career satisfaction for women surgeryWomen value a career which values the whole person beyond surgery
Zhuge et al 7 2011ReviewTo review the glass-ceiling phenomenon in surgery and identify causes strategiesThe glass-ceiling phenomenon is impacted by three themes: gender roles, sexism and lack of mentors.
Sexton et al 5 2012Members of the American Association of Medical CollegesSurveyTo determine the distribution of men and women across professional rank and to estimate when 50% of professorship will be womenRate of women surgeons progressing to full professorship is a slow slope of line of increase compared with rate of women entering medicine, and surgery (0.36 vs 0.75 vs 0.99)
Healy et al 18 2012Review of literatureTo understand the definition of role model, mentoring in surgeryWomen (75%) identified role models and mentors as positive but challenging to identify a women surgeon mentor.
Weiss et al 8 2013Residents in Surgical Residency in the U.S.
Residents in medical schools
Programme Chairs/Directors
-cohort study
To determine the number of women in leadership positions as either a Chair, Programme Director (PD), Chief and Associate Director (AD)Percentage of Women in the following positions:
Chairs 8 (3%)
PD 25 (10%)
Chiefs 157 (10%)
AD 35 (24%)
Cochran et al 19 2013Surgical Residents and FacultySurveyTo find out if women surgeons perceive different barriers than men counterparts in academiaWomen surgeons feel and perceive excluded from the dominant culture in surgical departments
Seemann et al 4 2016Women surgeons across Canadian Academic CentersSurveyTo explore women advancement and career satisfaction in surgeryLack of gender equality, appropriate mentorship and accommodations for women
  • AAOS, American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons; ABMS, American Board of Medical Specialties; ASA, American Surgical Association.