Table 1

Education and recruitment

AuthorYearParticipantsType of studyStudy objectiveFindings
Ourian et al 10 2011Undergraduate students considering a career in surgerySurveyTo examine the impact of outreach at the undergraduate level in the form of a course hosted by surgeons (50% women surgeons) influence on women’s interest in medicine and surgeryThirteen (100%) of the participants, 11 (85%) women found the outreach programme reaffirmed their decision to attend medical school and interest in surgery
Gifford et al 11 2014Surgical residents in 13 programmesSurveyTo determine how often surgical residents consider leaving the programmeWomen residents are more likely to consider leaving (OR 1.2; 95%; p=0.003)
Vertrees et al 12 2014Graduates from the Uniformed Services University of the Health SciencesSurveyTo determine if there are disparities among civilian and non-civilian women entering surgery and surgical subspecialtiesWomen in military medical programmes enter surgical training at the same rates as civilian programmes with an increase in rates (3.9% to 39% p=0.025)
Nebeker et al 13 2017MSU Goal ConsortiumQuantitative researchTo identify gender differences in surgical residencyGreater impact is year of residency with first year residents leaning towards attitudinal learning objectives and later years choosing knowledge-based and skill-based learning objectives. Residents taught by women surgeons leaned towards knowledge based objectives over skill based.
Luc et al 14 2017Medical and surgical residentsQuantitative surveyTo identify the role of social media as a mentoring tool for women in surgerySurgical residents identified using social media to build a network of mentors (p=0.031).
Fassiotto et al 15 2018Graduate Medical EvaluationQuantitative surveyTo determine the difference if any in evaluation scores for women and men facultyWomen scored lower across the board for specialties with fewer women such as surgery (p≤0.001)