Table 3

Impact of /on Life

AuthorYearParticipantsType of studyStudy objectiveFindings
Straehley and Longo20 2006Women in surgical residency or board certified surgeonsSurveyTo understand if family issues affect women in surgery90 responses to the survey (60%) identified themes around stressful tension between career demands and family, difficulty during childbearing years, designed to have a ‘wife’ at home.
Troppmann et al 21 2009American Board of SurgerySurveyTo assess challenges faced by women surgeons regarding personal family life compared with men counterparts.178 Board certified women surgeons (20.3%) responded of this 82.5% would choose their profession again, 62.4% had children later in life, 26.9% spouses were primary caregivers, 67.8% felt maternity leave was important and childcare at work (67.8%)
Merchant et al 22 2013Surgical Residents and Program Directors across CanadaSurveyTo explore the attitudes around pregnancy during surgical residency160 residents (30%) and 8 Programme Directors (50%) identified inadequacies within programmes to support pregnancy during residency, time off and breast feeding
Brown et al 23 2014UC Davis General surgery graduatesRetrospective reviewTo investigate if child rearing increases attrition from residencyNine women (10.5%) surgical residents had 10 pregnancies completed the programme and 87.5% went on to fellowship. There was no association with pregnancy and attrition.
Chen et al 24 2013National Study of Expectations and Attitudes of Residents in SurgeryProspective longitudinalTo characterise the effects of marriage and childbirth on the experience of surgery residencyFor women surgical residents marriage (p=0.005) and experiencing pregnancy and childbirth (p=0.008) were a source of negative emotions compared with men counterparts who reported feeling happier and supported.
Baptiste et al 25 2017Surgeons and all surgical trainees at one institutionSurvey
To evaluate the gender differences in professional advancement, work–life balance, and satisfactionGender disparities may be overcome by improved recruitment and retention strategies. Women were more likely to be married to professionals and responsible for childrearing.