Table 5

Women in surgical specialty

AuthorYearParticipantsType of studyStudy objectivesFindings
Caniano et al 40 2004Paediatric women surgeonsSurveyTo maintain surgery and paediatric surgery as a premier career choiceSeventy-nine (83%) surveys returned identified insufficient protected time, clinical load, on-call, lack of mentorship and departmental support as barriers.
Benzil2009American Association of Neurological SurgeonsWhite PaperTo attract women to neurosurgery servicesMentors, role models and exposure can encourage women in medical school to consider the specialty
Hamilton et al 42 2012Women surgeonsSurveyTo identify aspects of pregnancy and childbearing factors that impact residency and clinical practiceWomen orthopaedic surgeons/residents who work more than 60 hours a week are at higher risk for preterm deliveries compared with the general population
Dageforde et al 43 2012Women medical residentsSurveyTo find the elements which will encourage women to vascular surgery and leadershipOverall perceptions of women in surgery need to change
Grimsby and Wolter44 2013Urology residentCommentaryTo explore the experience of urology residency for a womanLess than 10% of all urologist are women urologist and there needs to be mentorship and exterminating sexual harrassment
Hill et al 45 2013Graduate Medical Students and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgical ResidentsSurveyTo understand what residents think of orthopaedic surgery and what hinders women from choosing the specialtyWomen constitute 13.2% of all orthopaedic specialty and 15% of full-time faculty. Increased exposure to orthopaedic specialty and mentorship can encourage women to enter the specialty
Renfrow et al 41 2016American Association of Neurological SurgeonsRetrospective surveyTo characterise the enrollment, attrition, and post attritionWomen attrition rates in neurosurgery are similar to other specialties but greater than men. Twelve percent of the surgical residents from 2000 to 2009 were women.
Weiss and Teuscher46 2016Council of Orthopedic Residency Directors withinSurveyTo understand the influence of maternity policy and choosing a surgical specialty45 programme directors responded (31%) of those 80% have written maternity policies and 36% have formal and informal; 49% have paternity leave policy. There is a general lack of uniformity, which warrants transparency and discussion.
Garza et al 47 2017Plastic Surgery Program DirectorsSurveyTo investigate issues related to pregnancyA return rate of 61.36% (54/88) identified 36.54% programmes have formal maternity policy and 20% have a policy for breast feeding. The rest of the directors identified multiple barriers to maternity leave policy, which include clinical training, coverage, workload burden, administrative support.
Chambers et al 55 2018Orthopaedic surgeryQuantitative surveyTo quantify discrepancy across surgical specialties among residents and facultyOrthopaedic surgery has the lowest rates of women in training (14%), less than 1% of women medical residents choose orthopaedics, 17.8% women orthopaedic surgeons are faculty, 8.7% professors of orthopaedics are women and 6.5% of the AAOS are women.