Table 4

Around the globe

AuthorYearParticipantsType of studyStudy objectiveFindings
Kaderli et al 26 2011Board certified women surgeons and surgical residents in SwitzerlandSurveyTo analyse women surgeons current personal and professional lives189 (59.4%) surveys returned, 70% reported career satisfaction however identified discrimination towards pregnancy, rigid work hours, poor structured residency
McHugh et al 27 2011Basic Surgical Training Residents and Royal College of Surgeons in IrelandQuantitativeTo identify modifiable factors to encourage surgical training recruitmentWomen residents were less likely to choose a surgical career (p=0.049). Surgical role model, intellectual challenge and academic opportunities influence choosing surgical subspecialty
Kwong2012Surgeons in Hong KongQuantitative surveyTo evaluate the attitudes of women and men towards work, personal life and work–life balanceOf all the surgeons women surgeons (13%) reported not enough time community (p=0.038) and rest (p=0.024). Both men and women surgeons reported satisfaction at work and life. Men surgeons reported wanting to work part-time during child rearing year (p=0.013).
Borracci et al 29 2013Medical students at the Universidad of Buenos Aires and SurgeonsObservation case control analysisTo analyse the relationship between choosing or not choosing surgeryWomen 74/100 students reported not choosing surgery because of limits in intellectual growth, jobs, not prestigious, poorly paid and it’s a male specialty
Okoshi et al 30 2014Kyoto University Hospital and School of MedicineDescriptive studyTo study gender inequality in Japanese academic surgeryThere are no women professors/associates in surgical medicine and one lecturer (2.3%).
Kerr et al 31 2015Women Junior Doctors and Medical Students in the United KingdomSurveyTo understand decision making process in choosing a surgical careerNinety-six (96%) surveys returned and 12% of junior doctors and 30% medical students plan a surgical career with 56% citing work–life balance as the main reason for not choosing a surgical career. Thirty percent identified women surgeons dissuading a surgical career.
Yorozuya et al 32 2015Women surgeons in JapanQuantitativeTo clarify the role of mentors among Japanese women surgeonsOf the survey respondents (48.7%), 67% identified mentorship as crucial for staying in a clinical position, clinical advancement and moral support but not academic advancement or work–life balance.
Cruz et al 33 2016Graduates of the Department of Surgery University of Puerto RicoRetrospectiveTo evaluate the gender distribution of General Surgery Residents between 1958 and 2014Women represent 36% of surgical residents while 50% of all medical residents are women.
Steklacova et al 34 2016European National Neurosurgery SocietiesSurveyTo establish the rates of gender inequality across Europe within neurosurgeryThere are 12 985 neurosurgeons across Europe and 12% are women with 26% in Denmark and 24% in Italy. Men neurosurgeons reported higher rates of marriage and children (p=0.001)
Dingemann35 2017Female Surgeons in GermanyDescriptiveTo present the challenges, current climate, gender disparities facing women surgeons in GermanyWith support for a balanced work–life and mentorship women have successful careers in surgery.
Retrouvey and Gdalevitch36 2018Women Plastic Surgeons of CanadaSurveyTo explore the role of Women Plastic Surgeons of CanadaIn Canada, women currently represent 22.6% of practising plastic surgeons but 40.3% of all plastic surgery residents are women; thus, the need for mentorship, recognition of gender disparity is crucial and education of members regarding gender disparity