Table 2

Definitions and measurement items of leadership competency domains

Competency domainCompetenciesMeasurement scales
Ethical and Social ResponsibilityI demonstrate honesty, integrity, fairness, and trustworthiness. I clearly establish high ethical standards, and uphold these standards through the use of rewards and punishments. I actively communicate the importance of ethics to others, particularly with respect to the ethical implications of my day-to-day training and work. Lastly, I demonstrate a strong commitment to social responsibility in terms of community, society, and environment.Ethical leadership22— adapted (5 items)
Honesty-humility33 —fairness (4 items) and sincerity (4 items)
CivilityI consistently treat others with dignity and respect, and act with regard to other’s feelings. Even under stressful conditions, I refrain from incivil verbal and nonverbal behaviours such as shouting or swearing, intimidation, bullying, rudeness, ridiculing, silent treatment, making threatening comments, and causing emotional distress to others (including peers, subordinates, and interdisciplinary team members).Incivility34—adapted (5 items)
Agreeableness33—forgiveness (4 items) and patience (4 items)
Self-LeadershipI am effective in several personal areas, including being organised, efficient, and exhibit effective time management. I am also reflective and strive for self-improvement, and demonstrate the ability to learn and grow.Learning goal orientation35—adapted (5 items)
Conscientiousness33 —organisation (4 items) and diligence (4 items)
Team ManagementI define leader and group member roles, initiate actions, organise group activities, and define how tasks are to be accomplished by the group. This includes effectiveness in areas such as selecting and assembling a team, talent recognition, recognising and rewarding the team, adapting to new challenges, and succession planning. I am also concerned with the well-being of my followers and I am personable and understanding. This includes creating a supporting environment, diagnosing group dynamics, conflict resolution, personality awareness, and empowering my team.Initiating structure (5 items) and consideration (5 items) Behaviours36
Vision and StrategyI set and create an ambitious long-term vision and forecast and create opportunities for growth at the faculty of medicine. I understand how my role contributes to other’s visions and I formulate and implement the strategy for achieving the Faculty of Medicine’s vision. I understand the core business of the Faculty of Medicine, I take a systems perspective that focuses on long-term organisational priorities, I recognise the need for and initiate change, and engage with others to support the strategy.Strategic leadership37 (8 items)
Transformational leadership—adapted (6 items)38
Creativity and InnovationI develop new insights into situations and apply innovative solutions to make team/organisational improvements. I also create a climate that encourages creative thinking and innovation and design and implement new or progressive ways of doing things.Openness33- creativity (4 items) and unconventionality (4 items)
Propensity to innovate39 (5 items)
Communication and Interpersonal InfluenceI actively listen, and both seek and am open-minded to others’ opinions, ideas, and perspectives. I am also able to communicate my ideas in a persuasive, accurate, and clear manner, projecting credibility. I tailor my communication to the audience. I have the ability to engage in diplomacy/negotiations, build consensus, and effectively engage the frontline. I am politically savvy in effectively navigating the political landscape of the Faculty of Medicine.Political skill40 (6 items)
Extraversion33—social boldness (4 items) and sociability (4 items)
Clinical communication—adapted SEGUE41 (6 items)
  • Items in the adapted measures have been chosen to maximise applicability to trainees in the medical context, ensure a unified response scale (eg, SEGUE is traditionally presented as a true/false measure), and to ensure the appropriate referent for the present study (eg, peers vs subordinate).