Table 1

Typologies of co-production, systems leadership behaviours and public sector management

Doing ToDoing ForDoing with
In practiceTop down decisions, telling people what to doWell-intentioned care or policymaking but with the power differential firmly in placeMutual respect, equality, and shared responsibility in 121 care and at a strategic level
United Nations public sector administration report (2005)27 Old public administration model focused on compliance and outputs - ‘professionals know best’New Public Management- emphasis on serving ‘customers’, in a business-like and efficient way - ‘you said, we did’Responsive governance; empowerment of and partnership with citizens and stakeholders and greater emphasis on participation and collaboration
Arnstein’s Ladder of Participation (1969)28 Informing, manipulatingPlacating, consultingCitizens in control, delegated power, partnership
Carman et al’s framework for engagement (2013)29 Giving informationConsulting through surveys and focus groups; asking about individual preferences; having patient reps to ‘advise’Shared decisions, based on equal relationships; equal representation on decision-making boards, co-leadership of improvement initiatives
Slay and Stephens Coproduction ladder (2013)30 Informing, educating, coercingEngaging and consultingCo-production and genuine involvement
Senge’s systems leadership behaviours (1990)15 Telling, sellingTesting, consultingCo-creating