Table 2

Data extraction table: characteristics of included studies

ReferenceCountry and research settingNew technologyMethodsStudy participantsKey findings
Morland and Pettersen8 Norway, hospitalsSpeech recogniserInterviews, document analysis, observationsPhysicians and secretariesPhysicians diversely adjust to the new technology. In the translation process, powerful actors (physicians) influence outcome of changes and thus they affect the effectiveness of the change initiatives.
Bjørkquist, Forss and Samuelsen 10 Norway, multiple settingsTelecare/ electronic device: personal alarmsInterviews, group interviewsFront-line staff members middle managersThe new technology does not simplify collaboration or solve collaboration challenges; it just limits information to written form.
Swinkels et al 11 Netherlands, primary healthcare serviceseHealthInterviews and focus groupsHealthcare professionals and patientsFor sustainable use of eHealth, primary healthcare professionals need to be reinforced in their management.
Tintorer et al 12 Spain, primary healthcare servicesVirtual communities of practiceDescriptive-interpretative qualitative study using focus groups and interviewsPhysicians and nurse with different positions within the organisation (healthcare or managerial)In order to make the most of its potential in terms of care and education, organisational changes are required to foster greater use.
Randell et al 13 England, hospitalsRobot-assisted surgeryRealist interview studySurgeons, surgical trainees, theatre nurses, operating department practitioners and anaesthetistsMotivation among team members to persist with robot-assisted surgery can be achieved without involvement in the initial decision to purchase a robot, but training that enables team members to feel confident as they take on the new tasks is essential.
Beane14 USA, hospitalsRobot-assisted surgeryObservations and interviewsSurgeons, nurses, scrubs, residents, theatre nurses and anaesthetistsThe practice of robotic surgery greatly limited trainees’ role in the work, making approved methods ineffective. Learning surgery in this context required ‘shadow learning’: an interconnected set of norm-challenging and policy-challenging practices enacted extensively, opportunistically and in relative isolation that allowed only a minority of robotic surgical trainees to come to competence.
Black et al 15 USA, hospitalsCT scanningInterpretative qualitative researchRadiologists and technologistsA balance of expertise across occupational boundaries in operating the technology creates a pattern in which the benefits of the new technology are likely to be realised most rapidly.
Edmonson et al 16 USA, hospitalsTechnology for cardiac surgeryObservations and interviewsOperating room team, hospital administrators, cardiologists, intensive care unit nurses and general unit (floor) nursesThere is a positive influence of psychological safety on collective team learning and establishing new routines during technology implementation.
Barret et al 17 England, hospital pharmaciesPharmaceutical-dispensing robotObservations and interviewsPharmacists, technicians, assistants, administrative workersEngagement with robots over time reconfigured boundary relations among the three occupational groups, with important and contradictory consequences for the pharmacy workers’ skills, status and visibility.
Gherardi18 Italy, telecardiology centresTelecardiological consultancyObservations and interviewsGeneral practitioners, cardiologistsAs telecardiology comes into use, it is inscribed more in the social practice of reassurance than in the medical one of preventing and dealing with emergencies.
Korica and Moloy19 England, hospitalsTelemedicineInterviewsSenior surgeonsThe article draws attention to how new technologies provide occasions for the evaluation of existing intraprofessional and interprofessional relationships and professional identity as a whole.
Nicolini20 Italy, telecardiology call centresTelemedicineObservations and interviewsManagers, cardiologists, nurses, technicians, general practitioners of monitored patientsThe study argues that in order to cope with the expansion of their activity after implementation of telecardiological consultancy, practitioners had to face three main practical problems: they had to redistribute their work and tasks among human and non-human elements, they had to reframe the ways in which the activity was made accountable and they had to reconfigure the relationships between all those involved.
Segar et al 21 England, telehealth call centresTelehealthInterviews and observationsTelehealth nurse care managers, practice nurses and general practitioners‘Commissioners and professionals who wish to integrate telehealth innovations into existing primary care services for LTCs need to pay attention to how changes in service delivery impact on professionals’ perceptions of their role and identity. Without this, the introduction of telehealth may lead to resistance and inter- and intra-professional rivalries’ (p. 612).
Gagnon et al 22 Canada, hospitalTelehealthInterviewsMedical directors, director’s assistant, administrators, physiciansThe study highlights the relevance of considering the characteristics and the dynamics of healthcare organisations at each stage of telehealth implementation in order to take their specific needs into account.
Pelikan et al 23 USA, hospitalSurgical robotinterviews and video dataSurgical staff (surgeons, residents, student, first assistants, anaesthesiologist, scrub nurses, circulator nurses and charge nurse)Description of new forms of physical, cognitive and affective distance associated with tele-operated robotic surgery and the effects of teleoperated robotic on power distribution, practice and collaborative experience within the surgical team.
Stevens and van Schaik 24 Netherlands, hospitalsEndovascular techniquesInterviewsSurgical staff (surgeons, anaesthesiologist, scrub nurses, radiologist)Relational and cognitive embeddedness factors support team learning, which in turn enables the team to achieve its self-set goals of treating more patients, offering more tailor-made care and providing endovascular treatment in emergency situations.
Petrakaki et al 25 England, hospitalElectronic patient recordInterviews and document analysisHealthcare professionals, managers and members of the technical teamIdentical technologies afford different changes in professional roles and structures depending on how technology is interpreted in the context of its use.
Petrakaki and Kornelakis26 England, NHS trustsElectronic patient recordInterviews and document analysisHealthcare professionals, managers and members of the technical team‘The implication of technology in professional work conditions processes of task routinization that constrain autonomy, and enables reallocation of discretion between professional groups’ (p. 223).
Mathieu-Fritz et al 27 France, hospitalTelemedicineObservation of video teleconsultations and interviewsDermatologists, surgeons, neurologists, geriatricians, cardiologists and speech therapistsChanges in interactions observable in teleconsultations encourage changes in terms of professional practices themselves.
Meyer and Paré28 Canada, telemedicine centresTelemedicine/intraoperative consultationsObservations and interviewsTechnologists, surgeons and pathologistsAfter implementation of the new technology, accountability became less collective and more individual and contractual, resulting in more marked boundaries between professional groups.
Sergeeva et al 29 Netherlands, hospitalda Vinci robotObservations and interviewsSurgical staffThe robot brings a new spatial distribution of roles and activities next to and away from the patients’ body, transforms work relations and triggers a new order of space use, yielding expertise movement and altering visibility.
Bergey et al 30 USA, hospitalsHealth information technologyObservations and interviewsNursing teamThe implementation of health information technology generated significant reconfigurations of work practices at the expense of nurse–patient interaction. Following such changes, nursing leadership described a realignment in staffing in order to have more versatile staff and task delegation of largely invisible work to unit clerks.
Barley31 USA, hospitalsCT scanningObservations and interviewsRadiologists and technologistsTechnology can alter institutionalised roles and patterns of interaction at work.
Burri32 Europe and USA, MRI centresMagnet resonance imaging technologyInterviews, documents and fieldworkRadiologists, technologists and other medical specialistsTechnology serves as a tool to demonstrate professional skills and power and to renegotiate identity.