Table 1

Techniques to enhance Trustworthiness in data collection and analysis

CredibilityHow well the data collected and the analysis process address the research questions
  • The sample was broad and contained care providers who were employed in a variety of roles, at different career stages, and they shared insights gained from quality improvement initiatives.

  • The sampling strategy was designed to be representative of the focal population of interest while simultaneously capturing variation of the phenomena.

  • Representative quotations for each theme have been included.

  • Multiple authors were involved in identifying and finalising themes (eg, member checks).

TransferabilityWhether findings can be transferred to other settings or groups
  • A description was provided of the context, participant characteristics, data collection and process of analysis.

DependabilityAccounting for factors that may change over time and providing enough information to replicate the study
  • The study involved only one (not multiple) interview with each person and were collected about retrospective experiences over a fairly short time period (3 months), minimising concerns about variation induced by external changes.

  • Additional information was provided on methods for processing data and data analysis to help enable replication.

ConfirmabilityEstablishing neutrality or avoiding bias in the study findings
  • Interviews were coded with an open mind and the perspective that leaders fulfil many functions, not all of which are likely encompassed by any particular leadership theory or framework.