Table 2

Leadership Styles and the climate they support (adapted from Goleman21)

Leadership styles that lead to a positive organisational climateLeadership styles that lead to a negative organisational climate
Visionary leaders—Mobilises people towards a vision—says ‘come with me’Pace-setting*—leaders setting very high performance standards for themselves and their followers says ‘do what I do now’
Coaching—facilitates improved future performance—says ‘ try this’Commanding*—an authoritative style which centres on threats of punishment for non-compliance—says do what I tell you’
Affiliiative which builds emotional connections—says people come first’*Both can have a place—see the ‘in practice’ section
Democratic which works to build consensus through shared decision making—says ‘ what do you think?’
  • *Described by Goleman as one who ensures pace and structure, motivating with clear exectation of quality and strict deadlines