Table 1

Key teamwork mechanisms and recommended actions

Teamwork mechanismRecommended action
Frame the workUse beginnings (eg, of teams, procedures, shifts) to:
  • establish mutual understanding: help others to make sense of the situation and goals

  • build a team orientation: remind others that the work involves an entire network of people from different professions and tenures

  • clarify roles and interdependencies: identify who’s who, and what is expected of each position

Leverage communication structuresUse communication structures to:
  • share information: use structures like handoff guides and closed-loop communication

  • learn: use debriefs to identify issues and then make adjustments

  • adapt on the fly: for example, use elements from extant handoff structures to create a procedure for handoffs from newly created triage areas

Practice inclusivityManage discussions to:
  • surface information: ask others (including other professions and those with less power) to speak up

  • manage information: pay attention to and reiterate uniquely held information voiced by others